Edibility of mushroom
The edibility of mushroom is known in virtually all human societies. Their characteristic unmistakable flavor, texture, and taste, have been celebrated by humans from days immemorial. A wide spectrum of mushroom species has, over the years, been collected for use as food, as medicine, and as a tonic. The most highly treasured species, in some societies, were, in fact fit to be presented even to Kings. Poisonous species are also known to occur. Indeed ugly historical accounts are documented in the literature, whereby individuals destroyed their enemies using mushrooms eterminants.
Fortunately, 99% of known mushrooms species, are safe. Let us see more of their positive side.
Value as Dietary Supplements
There is growing evidence that an effective treatment of many of the diseases can be secured through consumption of some mushrooms as a functional food, or through the use of biologically active compounds extracted from the mushrooms as dietary supplements. Some mushroom extracts enhance the immune response of the human body, thereby increasing resistance to disease and, in some cases, causing regression of a diseased state. Different from most pharmaceuticals, these biologically active compounds extracted from medicinal mushrooms, have extraordinary low toxicity even at high doses. For ages viewed as health tonics, many of these mushrooms are now known to profoundly to improve the quality of human health.
Mushroom produces several biologically active compounds that are usually associated with the cell wall. Most notably a group of polysaccharides comprising high molecular weight sugar polymers hane been reported to contribute to their immune enhancing and tumor retarding effects. It has been reported the the ant-tumor and ant-cancer effect of polysaccharides are based on enhancement of bodys immune systems, including activated microphages, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T cells and their secretory products, such as the tumour necrosis factor, reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates, and interleukins, rather than direct cytocidal effects.
It should be noted that immune responses are complex reactions involving several types of cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes. The killing mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, represents an important mechanism in immune defence against tumours, virus infected cells, parasites and other foreign invaders.
Speeding the growth
Vitamin D is an essential nutrition of forming born. Vitamin B2 helps to digest fat protein and sugar, which is good for growing children.
Prevention of Obesity
More than of 12% fiber included in mushroom leaves you satisfied without overeating. Furthermore, it prevents obesity by hindering fat absorption process by the colon.
Skin care an Ant-aging
The rich vitamin and phenols of the mushroom increases the level of antioxidant which is effective for anti-aging and skin care.
Recovery from fatigue and stress
Vitamin disposes sugar and promotes energy activities, which help recovery from fatigue and stress quickly.
The fact that mushrooms are cholesterol free, the extracts of Pleurotus sajor – caju), and Volvariella volvacea, have been reported to produce hypertensive effects in normotensive rats. Feeding powdered maitake(Grifola frondosa, mushrooms to spontaneous hypertensive rats, resulted in a lowering of the blood pressure. It has also been reported that dried powder of the two edible mushrooms, Auricularia auricular and Tremella fuciformis after being fed to rats, proved to be effective in lowering both the serum total cholesterol, and the low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (Cheung 1996). Since the mushroom did not affect the concentration of serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the
Reduction of serum total cholesterol by mushroom diets, is believed to be attributable to the fall in LDL cholesterol. It should be noted that LDL is bad cholesterol, and HDL is good cholesterol.
Fighting cancer is considered one of the most important areas of research in medicine and immunology. Due to the ability of cancer cells to mutate and become resistant to available drugs, new scientific approaches focusing on molecular mechanisms of carcinogens, are needed. A new direction in cancer treatment has risen, devoted to the use of natural bioactive compounds in conventional chemotherapy. The extractable bioactive compounds from mushroom can be used not only as strong immunoceuticals, but also as a source of potent metabolites capable of penetrating cell membranes, and interfering with particular signal transduction pathways linked to process such as inflammation, cell differentiation and survival, carcinogenesis, and metastasis. Several edible fungi have been reported to exhibit anti-tumour activity including Lentinula edodes, Flamulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreaus, Agaricus bisporus, Pholiota nameko, Tricholoma matstutake and Auricularia auricular. Volvariella volvacea and Flamulina velutipes contain cardiotoxic proteins, volvatoxin A and flammutoxin, which inhibit the respiration of Ehrlich mites tumour cells. Considerable attention has focused on lentinan, a polysaccharide extracted from L. edodes, the anti-cancer activity which ir reported to extend to cancer of the bowel, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, liver, lung and other ovaries.
In four year randomized control trial of lentinan for advanced or recurrent stomach cancer, in combination with chemotherapy, the two year survival rate in the control group was 0.1%, whereas in lentinan-treated group, the two- and four- year survival rates were 9.5% and 3.8%, respectively. Lentinan stimulates T-lymphocyte production, which is suppressed in cancer cases. Furthermore, ant-tumour action of lentinan occurred when the agent was administered orally to mice, as opposed to previous intravenous or intraperitoneal injection. L.edodes may also exert an anti-cancer effect by preventing in the formation of carcinogens. When dried shiitake is boiled, thiamlidine-4vcarboxylic acid (TCA) is formed. TCA is an effective nitrite traping agent, and may block the formation of carcinogenic –N- nitroso compounds.
Cmhran et al. reported that a polysaccharide fraction from Lentinula edodes was active in reducing the number of lung lesions in mice caused by influenza A/SW 15 virus. Other anti-viral activities in L.edodes were mediated by the induction of interferon in the host. This induction of interferon was subsequently attributed to mycoviral double –stranded RNA extracted from fungal spores. Another substance called KS-2 extracted from mushroom by Fujii et al., 1978 was shown to have anti-viral activity by inducing interferon production. Japanese researchers recently reported that lentinan in combination with drug AZT was more effective than AZT itself in suppressing the proliferation of the AIDS virus, pretreatment of the AIDS virus with an extract of L.edodes blocked infection of the target cells.